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Zotung minphuin thonaw kong

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                             Zo minphuin thokeinaw: Laephi vawlang minphuin thokeinaw a ny ae’ paw (anthropology) ae’ nynh minphuin a lepaw phuin thum (3) a um a ci ae’. Tuh-e ae’ tuh (a) Mongoloid (b) Aostraid (c) Negoroid ae’ nynh thua ae’. Asia ram kya a umpaw minphuin hynh Mongoloid minphuin kya-e nynh thua. Tuinkyaze Vae ram a umpaw minphuin ae’ hynh, Tibeto - Myanmar nynh ah thua oh.Tibeto - Myanmar lungkhu kya hynh Vae, Zo (Chin), Kachin, Rakhine, Kadu te Naka ae’ ah um bua oh. E ae’ kya blyn Vae ram a tee ty ae’ paw hynh Zo minphuin ae’ nynh ah thua oh.

    Vae ram lang teenaw kong: Zo minphuin ae' Vae ram a tee maw ae’ Pyu te The minphuin ae’ hynh Vae ram kya la um ty ae’. Zo ae’ hynh AD 400 te 700 laku kya Vae ram lang la tee bua ae’.
    Vae ram kya minphuin a lepaw (8) ah um oh. Minphuin a dih ae’ paw (135) a um. 9.7.1989 kum Vae ram milu 100 kyaze Kachin 1.478%, Kaya 0.459%, Karen 6.705%, Chin 2.119%, Mon 2.55%, Shan 9.66%, Rakhine 4.366%, Vae 67.207% la umkuh. Zo ram kya milu 400,000 lae a umkuh.

    Zo minphuin: Zo ram kya a umpaw minphuin taraw ae’ tuh >>> 1. Laimi, 2. Mete 3. Luse (kalinkaw) 4. Khami 5. Salai 6. Awwakhami 7. Khawnu 8. Khaungsai 10. Khualim 11. Khuali (sim) 12. Kanbe 13. Paite 14. Ngawn 15. Sitang 16. Senthang 17. Saitan 18. Zatawng 19. Zotung 20. Zo 21. Zophei 22. Zangiat 23. Tapawng 24. Tidim 25. Thesang 26. Tlaisun 27. Kadar 28. Teri 29. Din 30. Dai (Zindu) 31. Tangdu 32 .Naka 33. Maring 34. Panang 35. Mskang 36. Matu 37. Mara (Miram) 38. Mise 39. Muang 40. Lusai (Lusei) 41. Leimyo 42. Lente 43.Lautu 44. Lai 45. Laiphupho 46. Pakim (maru) 47. Hualngo 48. Anuu 49. Aana 50. Hupa 51. Hlingku 52. Ashochin (Mepianhchim) 53. Zawngtu minphuin taraw phuin-53
    (sungpangaw phuin thum) lang la phiakuh za bya phuin-42 (sungpali phuin ning) ah hoi oh.

    Zotung minphuin : Zotung minphuin kya phuin min patae phiakuh za abapi lang phuin thum lante khua la sah ae'. Zotung ram a tee takaw ae’ te ''Na ram, ka ram, na pee, ka pee, na khua, ka khua'' cite ramri phia ae’ za khua la sah ae’. Sungsakunaw, sawtuakunaw, thawccikunaw phe ccing. Mimaw zui lanpaw phungpaw (by-law) raekuh ae’ za a zui ae’. A luepaw ze byapae ae’ hawte a tungvaw rya a law ae’.
    Minphuin phuin thum lang a phia ae’,1. Bawi 2. Mihthya 3. See.

    1. Bawi : Ram, Khua, ccungccaw a hoitu thua za minphuin kya a hanghua paw nynh a thua.

    2. Mihthya : Bawi ae’ khua a sahnaw ae’ kya nulang a zuikuhtu nynh a thua. Bawi nynh a hobounaw miakaw kya ryalawpahtu nynh a thua.

    3. See : Bawi nynh a inn kya a um sah buapaw minphuin nynh a thua. Mee lang mah a sya kho, uccaw lang mah a zua kho. See lang la kyng ae’ paw hynh do lanze :
    1. A ngae hua ae’ paw
    2. A ruh a-ngah ae’ paw
    3. A hyn-kaw ae’ paw
    4. Lae sang kho lei ae’ paw
    5. Mimaw te mimaw a rawkuh ae’ paw
    6. Sarangpaw thinglung a hoi ae’ paw
    7. Mimaw te mimaw a theikuh ae’ paw
    8. Khozi raw rih lei ae’ paw
    9. Ryalaw hualei (mih thawnaw) ae’ paw
    10. Rawtuh ae’ za a shung ae’ paw.

    A thyahaw ae’ paw nynh minphuin laeze ccungccaw oun thuasahpaw ccungccaw mee (tanpho) hynh bapi hua a thua ci ae’. A kawlang e thinglung ccyngkuh lei paw tuh ccungccaw thua, mee a um lei paw thua za langmaw lya e see thinglung ( ui thinglung) cite a ci ae’.
    1. Pachia raw a rih, Pachia a-ngaehoikuh.
    2. Ccungccaw miakaw ccungccaw hawte a muih (dobung khyh).
    3. Ccungccaw thawccih.
    4. A seinaw hopya ze a lungtua.
    5. Amaw a hooynaw kong ho mang khyh .
    6. A mung a myh, bya patae ho khyh.
    7. Amaw ccu kya a thadyn kho, milae nynh bungkuhpaw, ngaehoiku khyh.
    8. Ccungccaw patae hooynaw hanlan amaw a shung lanpaw pawtua um sah khyh.
    9. Amaw te amaw zynkunaw (confidence) hoi zah a ding.
    10. A hoipaw uccaw, a thyapaw hawnaw miakaw milae a pya bua ry.
    11. Milae ei-ungnaw, ngae rykuh khyh naw hoi khyh.
    12. A ny leipaw te a thya leipaw milae khia lan notakuh (huakuh) khyh.
    13. A seinaw a menaw kya seisaku, ccisaku khyh.
    14. Atu e hawnaw hynh nyalang ccyh kya ngaenawpaw nynh a thua cih cite a tua.
    15. Ka nypaw a balyn te pawsangma ka nyh loh khyh cite a tuakuh.
    16. Kae lae a hawpaw patae a um cite a tua.
    17. Ccungccaw maethya um lanpaw byaho khyh.
    18. Sosoh lungkhu tua ty leite byaho khyh.
    19. A thaepaw thongpang hopathy mang khyh.
    20. A hooy leipaw bya khia mang khyh.
    Mr. Wallmatt a zeinaw kyaze, a vawlang e thinglung a ccyngkuh lei paw tuh ccungccaw a thuanaw mee a um leipaw cite a zei.
    Zotung ccungccaw ae’ zema Mr. Wallmatt nynh oun thaesahpaw kya-e hawte ah hiinnaw (ozia) dokuthui kalang oh sih. Zotung minphuin ae’ thinglung oun paleiku oh.

    Zo minphuin thinglung oun rulaekuh vae
    ==================================

    Zo ae’ Vae ram a tee takaw lya ae’ hynh myarya la hoi ae’. A kum patae oun saw tuh eiungkunaw, rawkunaw, khua kheit te khua kheit doukunaw te um ae’ za a thawsaehua paw nynh a nyaa huapaw kha uccaw luakute chiabiakunaw cia mih thinglung kya oun um vae. Miraw accozah nynh oun uk liate rawkuhpaw te chiakuhpaw daehua za innvaw a kuaku ae’ paw see (slave) ae’ luenaw pong a pya ae’. A.D (18) kumzabu nyalang kyate Zo ccungccaw ae’ a hooypaw lang bua oun tangthui ae’ cite Chin History kya a um.
    Langmaw lya sarangpaw hawte la um ae’ paw Zo minphuin ae’ hynh nyalang tuh hawnaw she nynh oun thua nua ae’ za PHUNGTHO tyngsanaw thinglung mah oun hoi vae ae’.
    lawpaw hynh laphae, sungulaw, bawilaw etc.., cite patae la hoi ae’. She thaw e ccungccaw ae’ nynh khuryng law ah thya ry vae khyh oh za vyavya a zo vae. Haekhaw ae’ tuh phungtho a vae khyh nawlan (a tyng nawlan) cite kum kheit ze vae kheit beikinn kya Phungtho lonawnin (Culture Sunday) hoi ae’ za thokeinawpaw tyngdaw te beikinn pulpit vawlang te a law ae’. Rev. Van Hre te ccangpaw pastor ae’ mah a law bua ae’. Minphuin thokeinawpaw te beiknaw tuh a phiaku thya leipaw a ci ae’.
    Zotung ram ma malang tuh phungtho te Pachia beiknaw ccyh oun rae cih oh cite ka zyn.

    Zotung ram e nungpaaw byakhupaw
    (1) Nungpaaw-bya ngae lei, zuby langte po!
    (2) Bawizou zua nan! Voklatho ehang nae sia cih!
    (3) Sakhi chi maw saphua phae nan!
    (4) Ccaeling sephae hawkuh haw!
    (5) Chihkua innsak noukuh haw!
    (6) Nawnia te ccephaw khuaccung kheih ae’ bangccaw!
    (7) Rawpuh nynh saw tae khyh!
    (8) Awpi khua za, khuadae khyh!
    (9) Ui loo lang ccia bangccaw!
    (10) Awpinung la rah, samaw a lungtua!
    (11) Kaethung lang long vua kho lei, patung bya khung kho lei!
    (12) Loisu khuao bangccaw!
    (13) Mithya thinglung angkae chi lua lei!
    (14) Mithya le, tuihung le!
    (15) Bawi-inn pe umte tuinoh pe loo pho!
    (16) Vung kaw ryanaw zudy ryanaw!

    CCAW (Literature)
    Langmaw lya ccaw ah hoi khyh keiccu oh ze Zotung phungpaw hynh mah pong ny kho um vae khyh. Paawpi a tawhua paw khia lan ae’ zema lu kheit te lu kheit a ho ae’ paw loku vae khyh. Ccaw la thya ae’ ze phungpaw ccaerarih lang pong ny kho lanpaw. Paw Khua Ming nynh Zotung ccaw a rae koute thaekunaw te nynaw patae oun pya. Byaho rypaw te pekipaw miakaw tungku leite myarya a sawnaw kalan mah ccaw te thaesakuh kho thua vae. Paw Khua Ming tungvaw kya Zotung ccungccaw miakaw lungtuanaw patae ah hoi cih oh cite ka zyn. Zotung minphuin miakaw nynh Zotung ccaw thya myarya a ho. Ccaw hoi khyh ze minphuin a zo kho. Vae ram lungkhu la um ty ae’ paw Pyu minphuin ae’ hynh ccaw la hoi khyh keiccu ae’ ze minphuin phe zo vae ae’. Zotung minphuin ah zo khyh nawlan oh Zotung ccaw tyng nawlan zuaku kou ho.

    Zotung ram Uhsuh te Khua min
    Uhsuh…. (22 )
    Khua…... (43) & (Myo-ne ccang lang e khua ae’ = 9)

    Uhsuh min Khua min
    1. Nawbung a. Nawbung
    b. Dawccung
    c. Ramcci
    2. Lungdua a. Lungdua
    b. Tuphae
    3. Ccangcceih a. Ccangcceih
    b. Khoboi
    4. Daedin a. Daedin
    b. Suitung
    5. Zesaw a. Zesaw
    b. Sungpi
    c. Thesi
    d. Lungring
    6. Tingsi a. Tingsi
    b. Tuilaw
    7.Aekaw a. Aekaw
    8. Saccade a. Saccade
    9. Lotaw a. Lotaw
    b. Lawvaw
    c. Tuitaw
    10. Thawlang a. Thawlang
    b. Siangaw
    c. Lungphialia
    11. E Tang a. E tang
    b. Thangdya
    c. Ramsae
    12. Tuibyng a. Tuibyng
    13. Hingthang a. Hingthang
    14. Rezua a. Rezua
    15. Rovaw a. Rovaw (A)
    b. Rovaw (B)
    16. Ccungsung a. Ccungsung
    b. Langly
    c. Ccawpi
    17. Sesi a. Sesi
    b. Tuinia
    c. Khotua
    18. Beihlae a. Beihlae
    b. Kaelung
    19. Votui a. Votui
    20. Lungngo a. Lungngo
    b. Sepi
    21. Ccawtui a. Ccawtui.
    22. Hunglae a. Hunglae
    b. Raso

    Myo-ne ccangpaw kya um ae’ paw Zotung ae’ (khua)
    1. Singhangthung (Keko pee)*
    2. Zungnah (Keko pee)
    3. Lavoikung (Keko pee)
    4. Polei (Keko pee) Zotung bya ho vae khyh ae’.
    5. Vuakhipaw (Keko pee) Zotung bya ho vae khyh ae’.
    *Angraw (Keko pee, 1996 kum te Polei khua lang pong nuekuh bua vae ae’.)
    6. Lungkhy (Haekha pee)
    7. Pangvaw (Haekha pee)
    8. Ccaho (Haekha pee)
    9. Voiru (Mindah pee)

    ZOTUNG PHUNGTHO: VOKLACHIA te BOITAW

    ( J. Thung Hlei, U Sa Min paw, Aekaw)

    Zotung phungtho kya “Lesae Chianaw” phin 7 a um.
    1. Vohlachia
    2. Boitaw
    E phin 2 kong hynh zei ka ry. Tulaepaw phin 5 kong hynh um hin sah.

    I. Voklachia

    Zotung phung lesae chianaw a thonaw tuh a kawlang e hawte nynh thua. Zotung ram a hoirung ae' paw nynh “Lesae Chianaw” hynh vohlachia te masaty a tho ae'. Voklaw song taruh paw kha sawsangnaw lang a chia ae'. Chiake ci ae' za setee a kumtang vae paw kha sah kheit a chia bia ae'. Samaw kha re 15. (A hoipaw nynh tuhlae lung lan a dua ae'.)

    E voklachia hynh nin thum a law ae'. A chia maw sawpaw sah kheit lungkhu khe a nizua balyn te awpi (khyhze) awkhung inn kheit nynh sah kheit cci te theih ae' za a theih cipaw mih pupaw inn langkhe bu tung lan (bu nungnawpaw) poi kheit te a ccyng ae'. Nin kheit lungkhu thua leite sawpaw sah kheit lungkhu mih ryaccung nin khe a duapya ae'.
    E voklachia nin 3 lungkhu hein masaty a tho nin tuh sawsang nin cikuh za voklaw sum taruh paw a chia ae'. Nin ningnaw tuh lawkae nin cikuh za setee kikung sah kheit a chia ae'. Lawkae cipaw tuh innhyh lang (inn ccanglang) e innkhakheit kha a chia maw te “Nang law nae kaepacih” cite samaw te a thuiku ty vae ae'. Tuh-e lawkaepaw nynh ccungccaw kha nungpi paawpi te liaccaw ccangvae balyn kha hykute a inn lang pong ko ae' za samaw re kheit duakute ccungccaw phe ccing vae cite tyng te dawsoi (daw dihpaw) kha khua ae' za maethe saw biate voklaw a theihpaw inn langkhe mih balyn te a ccei ae'. Voklaw theihpaw inn a thua ae' te maethe kha a theihpaw maepaw langkhe sakoih kyate maethe a ccyng balyn ae' te a kaw ae'. A theihtupaw inn kyate zema tyng te dawkhua ryte khua ae' za maethe te a kaw bia kalang ae'. Khacihte suimilan ccang kheit lungkhu tyngdaw te kawkuh ae' za a haeung ae'. Lawkaepaw a tyngdaw kha nung ae' za a theihtupaw a tyngdaw ryte maepaw khe a khuapi te khuazi khuadae law ae' za bu te saw mah a ae bia ae'. Te, nin 3 nin tuh nizua nin cikuh za voklaw a theihpaw nizua balyn nynh aw a theihpaw thuasah, a theih kholeipaw mah thuasah a theihpaw (mih pupaw) inn langkhe sawsamaw kha bua a zu ae'. Aw thei ae' paw tuh ke thua (khyhze) keccang (ke dihpaw) kha a phu bia ae'. Nizua nin khe a theihpaw nynh nizua hanlan cite vok song taruh paw kha chiapa ae' za nizua ae' hanlan samaw kha re a lehua paw, a thua huapaw (a hang ae' paw) kha a chiapya ae'. A duapya ae'. Vok song taryh achiapyahaepaw kha nizua innkheih ze vohsaw sykheih te bu poikheih te aki sakhaekuhae. Te sawsangnaw lang a chia typaw vokphae, voklya, sephae, selya kha marya nung ae' za nizua nin khe nizua hanlan a chia ae' paw vokphae voklya ryte mih nizua a tawhua ae' paw te a tawccaw ae' paw kha inn kheit ze vok sy hanpaw phae kheit, lya kheit ccite a pya ae'. Khuazi cia law ae' za nin thum cih tuh phe dae vae. (Leesae chianaw athonaw Voklachia nin thun te a thang vae)

    Thong Loih kya e

     

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